Located east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, California, Bodie stands as a relic from a bygone era, a true ghost town echoing the gold-mining past. This town, frozen in time, offers a comprehensive glimpse into the rough lifestyle of the Gold Rush period, in an environment that was far from friendly. During its heyday in 1880, Bodie boasted a population of around 10,000. However, it was abandoned in the early 1940s and now stands eerily silent.
As the gold-mining prospects dwindled on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the prospectors began to explore the eastern slope, hoping to strike it rich. Among them was William S. Bodey (also known as Waterman), who struck gold near what is now known as Bodie Bluff in 1859. Unfortunately, Bodey succumbed to a snowstorm that same winter, never witnessing the birth of the town bearing his name.
The discrepancy in the town’s name from its founder is attributed to either an illiterate sign painter’s mistake or a conscious change by the citizens to ensure proper pronunciation.
The inception of the Bunker Hill Mine and its mill in 1861 attracted around 20 miners to the area. Bodie, however, remained a minor mining encampment for the following 17 years. The Bunker Hill Mine and Mill, situated on the western slope of Bodie Bluff, experienced a series of ownership changes before being sold to four partners in 1877. The partners rebranded it as the Standard Mining Company, and shortly after discovered a rich gold ore vein. This propelled the town’s economy, and by 1878, the population had surged to around 5,000. Over the next quarter-century, the Standard Mine would generate gold worth nearly 15 million dollars.
The winter of 1878-79 brought an array of challenges for the citizens of Bodie. The brutal winter, rife with disease and exposure, claimed hundreds of lives, while accidents in the mines and an explosion further increased the death toll.
Despite the hardships, the population continued to swell, with miners, gamblers, and businesspeople alike flocking to the area. By 1879, Bodie was home to around 10,000 residents and 2,000 structures. Soon, Bodie boasted 30 gold mines, 65 saloons, various brothels, gambling houses, opium dens, and an array of reputable establishments like banks, schools, churches, and newspapers. Saloons lined the mile-long main street, and the town’s three breweries operated around the clock, with whiskey imported in 100-gallon barrels.
However, Bodie’s rapid growth also made it a hotbed for lawlessness, with violence, theft, and brawls becoming everyday occurrences. Reverend F.M. Warrington described it in 1881 as “a sea of sin, lashed by the tempests of lust and passion.”
The harsh reputation of Bodie caused one young girl, who was moving there with her family, to famously pray: “Goodbye God! We are going to Bodie.”
With an ever-growing need for construction materials, mine shaft beams, and fuel, a few entrepreneurs formed the Bodie & Benton Railroad in 1881, aimed at transporting lumber. This railroad, like others in the West, employed inexpensive Chinese labor, causing discontent among unemployed local miners. By 1882, the 32-mile railroad connected Bodie and Mono Mills on Mono Lake’s eastern shore. Although the rails have long since been repurposed, the old railroad track is still visible near the lake’s remote eastern shore.
During this period, many immigrants and former miners settled around Mono Lake, finding ways to live off the land. These early ranchers often had lots of food and livestock, supplying necessities to the neighboring mining towns of Bodie and Lundy.
However, the boom in Bodie was short-lived. By 1882, the town had begun its decline. The population fell to around 3,000 as smaller mining companies went bankrupt and residents sought greener pastures elsewhere.
Before 1882, Bodie had no churches, but it did have two preachers: Reverend Hinkle, a Methodist, and Father Cassin, a Catholic. Despite the dwindling fortunes of the mines, both a Methodist and a Catholic Church were established in 1882. Although the Catholic Church did not survive Bodie’s later fires, the Methodist Church still stands.
The two main mines – Bodie and Standard – merged in 1887 and continued operations successfully for the next 20 years, with around 30 companies generating $400,000 worth of ore monthly. The total value of the ore extracted during this period is estimated to be between $90 and $100 million.
Disaster struck in 1892 when a fire devastated much of the business district, causing more people to leave. Despite the fire, the town became one of the first mining camps to be electrified in 1893. A second fire destroyed the Mill in 1898, but it was reconstructed the following year.
By 1915, most of Bodie’s significant mines were under the control of James Stewart Cain. He arrived in Bodie at the age of 25 and quickly made a name for himself in the lumber industry, transporting timber across Mono Lake. Cain eventually acquired the Bodie bank, leased the Mono Lake Railway & Lumber Company (formerly Bodie and Benton Railroad), became the town’s primary property owner, and took over the Standard Mill. However, the Standard Mill ceased operations around 1916, and a year later, the Bodie and Benton Railway was abandoned.
A catastrophic fire in 1932, started by a toddler playing with matches, obliterated 95% of Bodie’s buildings.
The final nails in Bodie’s coffin were hammered in by Prohibition and the Great Depression. Although some mining persisted, it was only marginally profitable, mainly through the use of cyanide to extract gold from old tailings.
A few hardy souls held out in Bodie until after World War II when the last functioning mine, the Lucky Boy, closed down. At this point, only six inhabitants remained, five of whom met untimely ends, cementing Bodie’s ghost town status.
In 1962, after years of neglect, Bodie was converted into a State Historic Park and was subsequently declared a California Historic Site in 1964. It has also earned the status of a National Historic Site.
Planning Your Visit
The Bodie Foundation organizes various events annually. These include historical reenactments during Friends of Bodie Day, ghost walks, and photo workshops. The Stamp Mill, the town’s only remaining industrial building, is accessible exclusively through guided tours, available a few times daily during summer and on holiday weekends. Outside of the summer, the weather is typically harsh and the structure potentially hazardous.
The park is situated northeast of Yosemite, 13 miles east of Highway 395 on Bodie Road (Hwy 270), seven miles south of Bridgeport.
Before venturing out to Bodie, remember to dress warmly as the area experiences sub-freezing temperatures on 300 days a year due to its high altitude. Also, there are no gas stations or food vendors, so ensure you have a full tank and packed lunches.